Abnormal upwelling and chlorophyll-a concentration off South Vietnam in summer 2007

Liu, X., J. Wang, X. Cheng, and Y. Du (2012), Abnormal upwelling and chlorophyll-a concentration off South Vietnam in summer 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C07021, doi:10.1029/2012JC008052.


The present study investigates a strong upwelling and concurrent phytoplankton bloom off the South Vietnam coast in August 2007. Analysis of the alongshore wind, offshore Ekman transport, wind stress curl and other parameters indicates the southwesterly summer monsoon plays an important role in this peculiar case. The change of monsoonal wind involves variations of atmospheric circulation on multiple time scales. On the interannual time scale, a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in 2007 accompanying with a La Niña event acts to enhance the southwesterly monsoon over the South China Sea (SCS). The enhanced southwesterly wind is regarded as a major factor in promoting the upwelling and the phytoplankton bloom off the South Vietnam coast. On the intraseasonal time scale, variations of the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind at 30-60 day periods reveal that the SST cooling develops with the evolution of the southwesterly wind anomalies with nearly one week delay, implying the great significance of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Moreover, a tropical storm formed in the western SCS in early August reinforces the westerly wind and SST cooling. Among multiple factors on different time scales, the MJO event is considered as the major cause, since it induces the maximum velocity (4 m/s) of the southwesterly wind anomalies. As a result, the high Chlorophyll-a concentration (>0.56 mg/m3) and low SST center (<27 {degree sign}C) develops in the region off the South Vietnam coast and advects to the central SCS, riding on the northern rim of the southern anticyclonic gyre.


  • Chlorophyll-a concentration
  • El Niño
  • Indian Ocean dipole
  • Madden-Julian Oscillation
  • South Vietnam coast
  • upwelling

Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam

DanLing TANG, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045, 2004.


Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the southeastern Vietnamese coastal waters have caused large economic losses in aquacultured and wild fisheries in recent years; however, there have been few oceanographic studies on these HAB events. The present study reports an extensive HAB off southeastern Vietnamese waters during late June to July 2002 with in situ observations and analyzes the oceanographic conditions using satellite remote sensing data. The HAB had high chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (up to 4.5 mg m−3) occurring ∼200 km off the coast and ∼200 km northeast of the Mekong River mouth for a period of ∼6 weeks. The bloom was dominated by the harmful algae haptophyte Phaeocystis cf. globosa and caused a very significant mortality of aquacultured fish and other marine life. In the same period, sea surface temperature (SST) imagery showed a cold water plume extending from the coast to the open sea, and QuikScat data showed strong southwesterly winds blowing parallel to the coastline. This study indicated that the HAB was induced and supported by offshore upwelling that brings nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface and from coastal water to offshore water and that the upwelling was driven by strong wind through Ekman transport when winds were parallel to the coastline. This study demonstrated the possibility of utilizing a combination of satellite data of Chl a, SST, and wind velocity together with coastal bathymetric information and in situ observations to give a better understanding of the biological oceanography of HABs.


  • harmful algal bloom (HAB);
  • satellite remote sensing;
  • upwelling;
  • SeaWiFS;
  • chlorophyll a;
  • South China Sea

Research Associate/Research Assistant (Bangkok, Thailand)

Position: Research Associate/Research Assistant
Topic: Managing Resources for Sustainable Development in Southeast Asia (MR4SD) Research Group
Salary range: Competitive salary with benefits, commensurate with experience and qualifications. SEI reserves the right to appoint at a lower level, if appropriate.
Start date: As soon as possible, however, not later than early October is expected.
Contract period: 24 months renewable contract with 6-month probation period
Duty station: Bangkok, Thailand
Application deadline: 15 August 2013

Job description

The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) seeks a Research Associate to assist in undertaking research and coordination on projects relating to biophysical processes and the conditions that enable sustainable land, water and energy management considering uncertain future climate conditions.

The appointee will be working with colleagues in the MR4SD research group at Asia Centre in Bangkok and SEI colleagues worldwide. The appointee will be responsible for carrying out library and internet searches; conducting literature reviews and preparing bibliographies; assisting in proposal preparation; contributing to planning and implementation of fieldwork; recording; collating and analyzing data; preparing project documentation and reports; preparing scientific papers; and other tasks depending on the skills and background of the appointee.

The Research Associate/Research Assistant will report directly to the MR4SD Research Group Leader and specific project leader/manager and under overall supervision by the Centre Director of SEI in Asia.


Essential Criteria

  • Masters-level degree in relevant subject, e.g. agricultural or environmental engineering, physical geography, geo-ecology, hydrology, environmental studies or other fields related to land and water resources.
  • Strong motivation, personal initiative and commitment to excellence and results, as well as enthusiasm for doing scientific research.
  • Good background in, and ability to apply, quantitative approaches, statistics and numerical modeling (e.g. hydrological model, ecosystem model), as well as quantitative GIS/RS methods (e.g. spatial data).
  • Good understanding of the concept of environmental sustainability.
  • Experience in field data collection.
  • Demonstrated record of oral and written communication.
  • Demonstrated record of interdisciplinary collaboration, partnership and team building and the desire to work in a collaborative environment.
  • Good organization and time management skills.
  • Fluency in spoken and written English.


Desirable Criteria

  • At least 3 years of research experience in the Mekong River region
  • Experience in communicating complex concepts and information to a range of different audiences.
  • Interest in working at the interface with social science and policy engagement, and qualitative approaches.
  • Knowledge of a Southeast Asian language is desirable.
  • Knowledge of a programming or scripting language is an advantage.

Ms. Orn-uma Polpanich ( ornuma.polpanich@sei-international.org This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )

How to apply
Please send your application and supporting documents to Ms. Nipa Laithong ( nipa.laithong@sei-international.org This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ). Applications will be accepted until the position has been filled. Please include the following:

  • Cover letter highlighting relevant qualifications and experience, what appeals to you about this job, and how you envision your work at SEI (max. 2 pages).
  • Curriculum vitae, including major projects led (with an emphasis on Southeast Asia region), publications, three professional references who will be contacted only if short-listed (max. 8 pages), and current and expected salary (in Thai baht/month).
  • 2 to 3 samples of publications of which you are the lead author.

Application will be acknowledged. Only shortlisted candidates will be invited for interview.

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Germany DAAD Scholarship for Developing Countries

Each year, DAAD, German Academic Exchange Service offers scholarships for developing countries’ students. The scholarships are available for pursuing a postgraduate degree at German institutions of Higher education. These scholarships provide monthly installment of EUR 750.00. and also include the costs for health, accident and liability insurance in Germany and an adequate travelling allowance.

Study Subject(s): DAAD Scholarships for Developing Countries are offered for pursuing development-related postgraduate courses in the areas of Economic Sciences / Business Administration/ Political Economics, Development Co-operation, Engineering and related sciences, Mathematics, Regional Planning, Agricultural and Forest Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Public Health / Veterinary Medicine / Medicine, Social Science, Education & Law and Media Studies.
Course Level: The scholarship is offered to pursue a postgraduate degree at German institutions of Higher education.
Scholarship Provider: DAAD, German Academic Exchange Service.
Scholarship can be taken at: Germany

-Age limit: 36 years of age at the time of application (for some courses 32 years)
For some courses, Bachelor degree should have been completed not longer than 6 years at the time of application. Concerning this matter, please directly contact the coordinator of the respective study program.
-Degree: Bachelor or Master
-GPA: min 2,75 for Master candidates (some study programs applied GPA more than 2,75. Please see the detail on the website of each study program) and 3,00 for Doctoral candidates.
-Work experience: at least two years after completing Bachelor degree.
-Language skill:
-For postgraduate courses held in English request an international TOEFL (minimum score: 550 paper based, 213 computer based, 80 internet based) or IELTS (band 6). Some courses may expect a different level. For detailed information see the website of the relevant course.
-For postgraduate courses held in German: please see the details on the course list. A certain level of German language exam may be required before admission to the course.

JAXA Job Opportunity

Job Announcement for One Professor Position at ISAS

JAXA seeks to recruit a professor (Academic staff) at Department of Interdisciplinary Space Science, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS).

Application Guidelines: Download (43KB)
Application Deadline: September 30, 2013


FY2014 [Comprehensive Studies on the Evolution of Life and the History of the Earth] Recruitment of Scientists/Research Scientists/Postdoctoral Researchers/Engineers

JAMSTEC will be recruiting a total of 10 positions as Scientist/Research Scientist/Postdoctoral Researcher/Engineer who will be engaged in the third medium-term plan.

[Research fields]
Comprehensive Studies on the Evolution of Life and the History of the Earth.

Subsurface Geobiology Advanced Research
This group is conducting researches on the as-yet-unknown environment and biosphere existing in sunlight-independent deep earth, its function and role in the current earth, and its role on the evolution of the earth and life.
In detail, the group will work on:
・exploration on as-yet-unknown biosphere using advanced oceanographic research instruments and methodology.
・determing limits of life and biosphere and boundary habitats and conditions between habitable and uninhabitable.
・clarification of functions and roles of the as-yet-unknown ecosystems in the global energy and element cycles.
・elucidating unique biological interactions (symbioses and/or co-nutritional mechanisms).
・engineering use of extreme environment, biosphere and biological macromolecule which applied to the extreme environment (e.g. Clean chemical processes, fabrication of new materials and biomimetics) and engineering research on artificial life.

Marine Ecosystem Structural Analysis Research
This group is conducting researches and technology developments aiming to discover biological evolutionary mechanisms, biological interactions, and the structure and function of ecosystems in the deep sea. This group uses and develops cutting-edge survey technologies and methodologies to discover the relationships between symbioses and evolution, effects of environmental parameters on biological community structure and stability, and material and energy flows in deep marine benthic and pelagic ecosystems.

Earth History and Biogeochemistry Research
This group is conducting researches on the processes in the formation of the current oceanic environment, especially those relating to bioelements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. The research includes developments of novel methodologies to tackle this topic. This group also pursues deep understanding of the relationships between biological activities and the oceanic environment, and their changes in the history of the Earth.

Please visit our website for the details of the research fields:

Scientist: To contribute to the Agency, Scientists are expected to have world-leading performance ability to accomplish research as an independent scientist.

Research Scientist: To contribute to the Agency, Research Scientists are expected to take a leading role in research, technology development, and technology innovation.

Postdoctoral Researcher: To contribute to the Agency, Postdoctoral Researchers should be able to demonstrate ability to conduct creative research independently.

Engineer: To contribute to the Agency, Engineers are expected to manage, improve and advance the infrastructure. Establishment of technology based on a background of general technical knowledge such as information system, improvement of technical management functions is also inclusive.

*The group to be assigned will be determined based on the applicant’s expertise.
*There may be change in affiliation in case of reorganization in the Agency.
*There may be a possibility to change the positions above. The details are currently under consideration.

For more details, please visit the website

Job: Analysis of phytoplankton functional types in the Gulf of Lions from satellite data and study of their influence on spatio-temporal dynamics of small pelagic fish

Analysis of phytoplankton functional types in the Gulf of Lions from satellite data and study of their influence on spatio-temporal dynamics of small pelagic fish

Throughout the world, small pelagic fish stocks are known to fluctuate a lot. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for the important spatio-temporal variability in these stocks remain mostly unknown. Environment is often supposed to be the main driver of small pelagic dynamics, thus assuming a bottom-up control of their populations. This project aims at testing this hypothesis by evaluating the potential link between plankton and small pelagics in the North-West Mediterranean Sea (NWMS). The first step will be to assess the phytoplankton composition of the NWMS since 1997 using PhySat algorithm based on ocean colour satellite data. The study of its spatio-temporal distribution through geostatistics and wavelet analyses should yield important insights on potential changes or shifts in plankton community composition during the last 15 years. Then, the link between phytoplankton spatio-temporal distribution and abiotic conditions (such as temperature, meso-scale dynamics) will be investigated. The final step of this project will be to test the main hypothesis of a bottom-up control of small pelagic fish by comparing the phytoplankton production datasets and those of abundance, biomass and condition indices of small pelagics obtained since 1993.

Keywordsphytoplankton, remote sensing, functional type, bottom-up process, optic reflectance, Physat, environmental effects, spatial dynamics.


We are looking for a highly motivated candidate in possession of a PhD in marine biology, oceanography or fisheries science. Skills in scientific computation and modelisation are necessary, as well as in remote sensing data manipulation. A good knowledge of plankton would also be highly appreciated. Finally, a good level of English writing is expected.

Contacts: claire.saraux@ifremer.frsylvain.bonhommeau@ifremer.fr or herve.demarcq@ird.fr

Underwater optical environment in the Upper Gulf of Thailand

Matsumura, Satsuki,Siripong, Absornsuda,Lirdwitayaprasit, Thaitherworn

Coastal marine science. Vol.30No.1, 2006.4, pp. 36-43


Because the composition of coastal water is full of variety by each region, relationship between chlorophyll-a (chl.a) concentration as a indicator of primary productivity derived by satellite ocean color data and in situ data of chl.a may not be same always. Those relations or algorithms should be verified at each coastal water for managing coastal environment. Coastal ocean color algorithms should be built up at each coastal water or at least should be verified by wide range field data for practical application at each region. Intensive research cruises were conducted at the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Optical survey using PRR (Profiling Reflectance Radiometer) showed the character of the Upper Gulf water. Under water optical algorithms for that water were suggested by these survey data. Optical depths in the Gulf of Thailand were also measured to know the compensation depth for primary production. Although the transparency measured by Secchi disk is not so large and surface water looks very turbid, the light energies are reaching to near bottom at almost all stations of the upper Gulf. It suggests that the turbidity of this water were mainly composed of scattering material like as clay mineral rather than absorbing material like as phytoplankton pigment or CDOM.


  • coastal water algorithm
  • PAR
  • compensation depth
  • chlorophyll-a
  • CDOM
  • SS
  • satellite
  • remote sensing

Download the PDF Paper

Fourth WESTPAC Summer School on the Monsoon Onset Monitoring and its Social & Ecosystem Impacts (MOMSEI), Terengganu, Malaysia, 19-23 August 2013

Asian Monsoon plays a significant role in the agriculture and the livelihood of people in the wider Southeast Asian Basin and its neighboring countries since it brings most of the rainfall to this region. Naturally, while Asian Monsoon deviates from its normal pattern, it causes severe disasters such as floods and droughts, even resulting in the disruption of agricultural operation and the displacement of inhabitants. In addition, the extraordinary late monsoon onset leads to an extended length of high sea surface temperature, and thus increasing the risk of coral bleaching. In this sense, it is vital to improve the monitoring capability on monsoon onset in the wider Southeast Asia region for the societal and ecosystem benefit.

To this end, in view of the fact that the Asian Monsoon is evidently influenced by and coupled with the ocean, the IOC Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC) initiated one pilot project entitled “Monsoon Onset Monitoring and its Social and Ecosystem Impact” (MOMSEI) in 2009 within its South East Asia Global Ocean Observing System (SEAGOOS) with objectives to improve the understanding and forecasting of Asia monsoon and its multi-scale variability at regional level through the conduct of air-sea interaction in the Monsoon birthplace and the analysis of the possible link of monsoon onset with its impact on marine ecosystem.

In light of the increasing demand of capacity building, three MOMSEI Summer Schools were held, respectively in Qingdao China 26-30 July 2010, Phuket Thailand 15-19 August 2011, and Qingdao China 6-10 August 2012 to bring the up-to-date monsoon science to young scientists from participating countries. In particular, besides the participants from MOMSEI participating countries, the MOMSEI Summer School-II and III also received total eleven trainees from countries bordering the Bay of Bengal, such as India, Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka in close cooperation with the GEF/FAO Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BOBLME) project.

Following the success of and strong interests received from the previous three Summer Schools, WESTPAC decided to organize the four MOMSEI Summer School in Terengganu, Malaysia, 19-23 August 2013 with the kind host of the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of Malaysia).

The MOMSEI Summer School-IV will consist of four-day lecture Session, half day field trip and half day wrap-up Session.

The Lecture Session will include three parts, i.e. Basic Science of Asian Monsoon; Asian Monsoon Onset Monitoring, Coral Monitoring, possible links between onset anomalies and coral bleaching; and MOMSEI project.

Session-I: Basic Science of Asian Monsoon
• The overview of Asian Monsoon
• Asian Monsoon intra-seasonal to inter-decadal variations
• El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO)’s impact on Asian Monsoon

Session-II: Asian Monsoon Onset Monitoring, Coral Monitoring
• Asian Monsoon Onset Monitoring and Coral monitoring
• Monsoon’s impact on coral ecosystem

Session-III: MOMSEI Project Introduction
• MOMSEI Science Plan
• MOMSEI Implementation Strategy and Status

Session-IV: Field trip

A half day field trip will be arranged by the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu to visit the relevant laboratory facilities and/or other infrastructures, which will be of help for all trainees to acquire in-situ experience on the operation of relevant oceanographic instruments, collection of data, etc.

Session–V: Wrap-up

MOMSEI Summer School will conduct a half day wrap-up session to encourage the trainees to briefly present their research experience, and feedbacks on MOMSEI and MOMSEI Summer School.

This Summer School is open to those who have a Master’s Degree and/or working experience in oceanography, meteorology, marine biology and ecosystem. Due to the limitation of available funding support, the priority will be given to those from MOMSEI participating countries. The applicants should have a good command of English.

For those who wish to join the Summer School, please send your CV, the Application Form, no later than 15 June 2013, to Dr. Li Zhi (lizhi@fio.org.cn), Dr. Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Akhir (mfadzil@umt.edu.my), and with a copy to Mr. Wenxi Zhu (w.zhu@unesco.org), Head of WESTPAC Office.

Limited financial support for the most economic round-way travel and local expenditures is available upon request. Priority will be given to those selected trainees from the MOMSEI participating countries.

All funded trainees are required to reserve and purchase their round-trip tickets at economy class between their home country and Terengganu, and bring the original receipt of air flights and boarding passes to the Local Secretariat upon arrival. Reimbursement will be made during/after the Summer School.

The Fourth Summer School will take place on 19-23 August 2013 at the Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

The Summer School will be conducted in English.

Some trainees traveling to Malaysia are perhaps required to have the entry visa to Malaysia in accordance with relevant laws and regulations. Please check the visa requirements with the Malaysia Embassy/Consulate in your country and apply for the entry-visa. The Local Secretariat and the WESTPAC Office will be glad to provide you any assistance if needed.

Please send your itinerary and passport information to the Local Secretariat no later than 5th August 2013. Universiti Malaysia Terengganu will arrange pick-up and drop-off service at the Kuala Terengganu Airport.


Dr. Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Akhir
Institute of Oceanography and Environment
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
Email: mfadzil@umt.edu.my

We are looking forward to seeing you in Terengganu, Malaysia.
Annoucement in pdf
Application Form in word