An extensive Cochlodinium bloom along the western coast of Palawan, Philippines

Rhodora V. Azanzaa, ,Laura T. Davida,Roselle T. Borjaa,Iris U. Baulaa,Yasuwo Fukuyob
a The Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
b Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2007.12.011

Abstract

A massive fish kill and water discoloration were reported off the western coast of Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines in March 2005. Phytoplankton analysis revealed a near monospecific bloom of the dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, with cell concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 105 to 3.2 × 106 cells per liter. Ground truth data were supplemented by processed satellite images from MODIS Aqua Level 2 data (1 km resolution) from January to April 2005, which revealed high surface chlorophyll-a levels (up to 50 mg/m3) offshore of west and southwest Palawan as early as February 2005. The bloom extended 310 km in length and 80 km in width at its peak in March off the central coast (Puerto Princesa). By April, the bloom declined in intensity, but was still apparent along the northern coast (El Nido). Fluctuations in chlorophyll levels off the western coast of Sabah, Malaysia and Brunei during this time period suggested that the bloom was not limited to the coast of Palawan. Satellite imagery from Sabah in late January revealed a plume of chl-a that is believed to be the source of the C. polykrikoides bloom in Palawan. This plume drifted offshore, advected northward via the basin-wide counterclockwise gyre, and reached nutrient-rich, upwelled waters near Palawan (due to a positive wind stress curl) where the dinoflagellate bloomed and persisted for 2 months from March to April 2005.

Keywords

  • Cochlodinium polykrikoides;
  • Fish kills;
  • Philippines;
  • Remote sensing

 

Toksin air merah masih ada pada kerang

  Jabatan Perikanan Sabah mengumumkan bahawa sampel kerang yang dikumpul dari pelbagai tempat di  negeri ini masih mengandungi paras bahaya toksin fenomena air merah.

Pengarahnya, Rayner Stuel Galid berkata, keputusan menunjukkan bahawa tahap ketoksikan kekal memudaratkan iaitu dalam 700 MU (Unit Mouse), 300 MU lebih tinggi daripada paras yang dianggap selamat untuk manusia

“Memakan kerang yang mengandungi toksin air merah menyebabkan keracunan makanan dan boleh membawa maut,” kata Rayner.

“Hanya Jabatan Perikanan dapat mengesan kehadiran toksin dalam kerang dan ujian dijalankan di makmal khas kami. Toksin tidak dapat dikesan oleh penglihatan, bau atau rasa dan ianya tidak boleh dikeluarkan melalui cucian teliti atau memasak,” katanya.

Fenomena air merah atau Red Tide adalah istilah yang biasa digunakan untuk alga bloom berbahaya (HAB). HAB berlaku apabila koloni tumbuh-tumbuhan laut atau pertumbuhan alga terkeluar dari kawalan. Satu sel tunggal boleh menyebabkan pembiakan beberapa ratus sel-sel dan keadaan air yang sesuai akan menyebabkan pengeluaran toksin yang boleh melemahkan manusia. Bahan toksin ini membunuh ikan dan menjadikan kerang-kerangan tidak selamat untuk dimakan. Bloom ini juga sering menukarkan air menjadi merah, dengan itu istilah “air merah” pun berlaku.

Menurut Rayner, keadaan cuaca panas dan basah baru-baru ini menyebabkan tempoh fenomena air merah di Sabah berpanjangan.

Fenomena ini pertama kali dikesan pada November tahun lalu dan sampel kerang dikumpulkan dari Kuala Penyu, Tuaran, Sipitang dan pantai Bandaraya Kota Kinabalu menunjukkan tahap yang lebih tinggi racun pada Mac tahun ini.

Orang ramai dinasihatkan untuk menahan diri daripada menjual dan mengambil semua jenis kerang atau dwicangkerang seperti tiram, kupang, kerang, kepah atau krustasia seperti udang dan ketam.

Rasa semut-semut atau sensasi mencucuk dalam mulut dan lidah, sakit kepala, loya adalah tanda-tanda keracunan air merah atau keracunan paralitik kerang-kerangan (PSP). Simptom boleh bertambah dari kebas kepada kehilangan kawalan anggota badan yang membawa kepada kegagalan pernafasan.

Kesan tanda-tanda toksik adalah cepat dan gejala awal biasanya berlaku dalam tempoh dua jam selepas memakannya. Rawatan perubatan mesti segera dilakukan. Setakat ini, fenomena air merah telah mengorbankan tiga nyawa di Sabah. – Insight Sabah

Diterbitkan pada Jun 08, 2013

Source

Amaran Air Merah di Pantai Barat Sabah

  Satu amaran kesihatan yang melarang orang awam makan kerang, dikeluarkan berikutan penemuan kewujudan air merah di sepanjang pantai barat Sabah.

Pengarah Jabatan Perikanan, Rayner Stuel Galid mengingatkan orang ramai untuk tidak makan kerang yang dikutip dari kawasan-kawasan terjejas selepas ujian rutin menunjukkan kepekatan tinggi toksin keracunan paralitik kerang (PSP). Beliau turut memberitahu para nelayan untuk tidak mengumpul atau menjual kerang beracun ini.

Menurut jabatan itu, sampel kerang yang diambil dari perairan Kota Kinabalu, Pulau Gaya, Teluk Sepanggar, Teluk Likas, Papar, Putatan, daerah Tuaran dan daerah sejauh Kuala Penyu juga diuji positif bagi toksin PSP.

Spesies kerang terdedah kepada keracunan PSP termasuk semua spesies kerang iaitu kerang (Kerang), tiram (Tiram) dan kupang (Kupang). Selain itu, Rayner berkata, sampel air laut dari kawasan yang terjejas juga mendedahkan kepekatan tinggi PSP yang menyebabkan organisma. Beliau melaporkan bahawa sebelum ini, kejadian air merah di Sabah menunjukkan kepekatan toksik dalam kerang-kerangan adalah setinggi 8,000MU (mouse unit) di atas paras 400MU yang dianggap tahap risiko minimum untuk kegunaan manusia.

Data terbaru yang dikumpul daripada sampel kerang menunjukkan kepekatan berbahaya tahap toksik dengan 4,010 MU di Papar dan 1,270MU di Tuaran.

“Ada kemungkinan tinggi yang air merah itu akan merebak ke daerah-daerah berdekatan di masa depan. Juga dijangka bahawa kerang akan menjadi lebih toksik berikutan dinoflagellates menjadi lebih banyak di laut,” kata Rayner.

Walaupun kebanyakan jenis ikan, udang dan spesies ketam selamat dimakan, jabatan menyarankan pengguna untuk membuang insang dan semua bahan daripada perut semua jenis ikan dan memastikan ia dibasuh dengan teliti. Bagaimanapun, katanya, mana-mana ikan kering, ikan masin dan lain-lain produk ikan yang diproses adalah selamat untuk dimakan.

Air Merah digambarkan sebagai keadaan di mana penapis pemakanan kerang mengumpul toksin akibat pemprosesan semulajadi alga marin.

Menurut Rayner, gejala keracunan PSP bermula dengan cucukan sensasi dalam mulut, sakit kepala, loya yang berlaku dengan pantas dalam masa beberapa minit atau sekurang-kurangnya sejam selepas makan kerang yang terjejas. Bergantung pada jumlah yang dimakan kerang tercemar, toksin menyerang sistem saraf pusat manusia, yang boleh membawa maut.

Tiada penawar untuk keracunan PSP dan orang ramai digesa mendapatkan rawatan perubatan dengan segera di klinik atau hospital berdekatan jika mereka mengalami sebarang gejala yang dinyatakan.

“Jabatan kami akan bekerja rapat dengan Jabatan Kesihatan untuk menjalankan persampelan dan ujian lanjut kehidupan laut yang dikutip di kawasan-kawasan lain dan akan terus memantau keadaan” kata Rayner. – Insight Sabah

Diterbitkan pada Disember 18, 2012

Source

貝殼類海產依然發現含有紅潮毒素

  沙巴漁業局宣佈,該局在州内多個地方所抽取的貝殼類海鮮樣本中,發現紅潮毒素依然維持在危險水平。

該局總監雷納表示,他們在經過化驗後,證實紅潮毒素依然維持在700用鼠單位(MU)的危險水平,比適合人類食用的安全水平還超過了300個用鼠單位。

“食用含有紅潮毒素的貝殼類海產將造成食物中毒,嚴重的話甚至會致命,”雷納警告說。

“只有漁業局才有能力去檢測出貝殼類海產内是否含有相關毒素,這些測試鬥士在我們的專業化驗室内進行。單靠觀察、嗅或品嘗是無法檢測出相關毒素,同時也無法透過清洗或烹飪來去除這些毒素,”他說。

紅 潮一般指的是有毒藻類爆發(HAB)的情形,而一旦海上的藻類繁殖速度到難以控制的地步時,就會爆發紅潮。該些單細胞的藻類在合適的海水狀況下,將會迅速 的繁殖,進而產生出對人體有害的毒素。這些毒素將會毒死魚類和造成貝殼類海產不適合食用。鑒于該藻類爆發時,會把海面上“染”成紅色,因此才被稱之爲紅 潮。

據雷納表示,最近炎熱和潮濕的氣候將會延長沙巴州紅潮現象的出現。

紅潮在去年11月起開始時被發現,同時今年3月在瓜拉班尤、斗亞蘭、實必丹和亞庇市沿海一帶所收集到的貝殼類海產也被發現含有高度的毒素。

公衆因此受促避免購買或食用任何貝殼類海產,如牡蠣、貽貝、蛤蜊、龍蝦、蝦和蟹等貝殼類海產。

口腔和舌頭產生刺痛感、頭痛、噁心症狀,這些都是紅潮中毒或麻痺性貝類中毒(PSP)的現象。若嚴重的話,可能或導致呼吸衰竭和四肢麻痹。

紅潮毒素發作非常迅速,在食用有毒海產的兩個小時内就會開始出現症狀,因此相關人士必須立即就醫。最近在沙巴州已有3人死于紅潮毒素。 – Insight Sabah

登載於 2013年06月08日

Source

沙巴西海岸的紅潮警報

  隨著沙巴西海岸爆發紅潮,當局已向公衆發表警報,勸告公衆勿使用貝殼類海產。

漁業局總監雷納警告公衆,當局在例行檢查中,發現部分沿海地區的貝類類海產被檢查出含有麻痹性貝類毒素(PSP),因此促請公衆暫勿食用從受影響海邊的貝殼類海產。

 

漁業局總監雷納漁業局總監雷納

據該局指出,他們在亞庇縣岸外、加雅島、實邦加灣、里卡士灣、吧巴、必打丹、斗亞蘭甚至是瓜拉班尤所收集到的貝殼類樣本中,檢驗出含有麻痹性貝殼類毒素。

容易中麻痹性貝殼類毒素的貝殼類海產包括所有的蛤種,如蚶,牡蠣和貽貝。雷納補充,他們在受影響地區的海水中,也檢測出高濃度造成麻痹性貝殼類毒素的藻 類。他透露,以前在沙巴出現的紅潮中,貝殼被檢測出的毒素最高為8000MU(用鼠單位),遠遠超過人體可使用最低毒素危險線的400MU。

當局最近所收集到的貝殼樣本中,被檢測出其所含的毒素已達到危險水平,吧巴縣的樣本檢測出4010MU,斗亞蘭縣的則是1270MU。

“紅潮在未來有很高的可能性會蔓延至其他臨近地區。同時隨著海上有毒甲藻數量更多,貝殼預測也將含有更多的毒素,”雷納說。

至於其他大部分的魚類、蝦和螃蟹則依然可安全食用,不過該局強烈建議消費者應去除所有魚類的魚膽和魚鰓及確保它們已經被徹底洗淨。不過,他說任何曬乾、腌製或其他已加工處理的魚類產品是可以安全使用的。

紅潮是形容濾食性貝殼在食用有毒藻類後所累積一定量的毒素。

據雷納表示,麻痹性貝殼毒素中毒的症狀,是開始時嘴巴會有刺痛的感覺、頭痛和噁心,一般快的話在食用貝殼後數分鐘至至少一小時後就會出現上述症狀。根據所食用已被污染的貝殼的數量,毒素將會攻擊人體中樞神經,嚴重的話或能致命。

目前暫無治療麻痹性貝殼中毒的方法,因此公衆受促若食用貝殼後出現上述症狀,要立即前往鄰近診所或醫院就醫。

“漁業局將會與衛生局合作,進一步收集其他地區的海洋生物樣本進行化驗和持續監督有關情況,”雷納說。 -Insight Sabah

登載於 2012年12月18日

Source

Avoid shellfish in Sabah’s west coast

The Star, 22 Jul 2013

Red tide as seen from the air.Red tide as seen from the air.

KOTA KINABALU: Consuming shellfish in Sabah should still be avoided as red tide is still prevailing in waters off the state’s west coast.

Sabah Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid said on Monday the toxic level is between 600 and 800 Mouse Unit (MU), which is a dangerous level for humans.

“This phenomenon is expected to tail off by August and people should refrain from taking shellfish especially those from Kuala Penyu and areas off Kota Kinabalu City, Sipitang and Tuaran as clam samples collected from these areas few months ago was among the highest in Sabah,” he said.

“Food poisoning and even death can result from the consumption of red tide intoxicated shellfish,” he said, adding the lowest MU unit considered safe for humans is below 400 MU.

Traders are also reminded to cooperate with the authorities by not selling the shellfish as they could risk the lives of people.

“Only the Fisheries Department can detect the presence of this toxin in all types of shellfish in our specialized lab and not by mere sight or smell,” Rayner explained.

He added that the toxin in shellfish also couldn’t be washed away even by cooking or washing repeatedly.

More than a hundred people had been warded for red tide poisoning earlier this year, while three deaths had been recorded from this deadly algae bloom.

Symptoms of the deadly algae bloom, commonly known as the red tide phenomenon, includes tingling of the lips and tongue depending on the severity of the poisoning.

Symptoms may progress to a ‘prickling of pins and needles’ sensation followed by the loss of control in a person’s arms and legs and later difficulty in breathing.

Those with such symptoms are advised to seek immediate medical attention as delay may result in death.

The red tide phenomenon was detected in November last year and was supposed to have tailed off by end of June.

Source

Red tide toxin in Sabah continues to make shellfish unsafe to eat

The Star, 7 Jun 2013

KOTA KINABALU: It is still not advisable to consume shellfish, as the level of red tide toxin recorded in various parts of Sabah sea continues to be high.

Sabah Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid said the toxic level is still within 700 Mouse Unit (MU), which is a relatively dangerous level for humans.

“Food poisoning and even death can result from the consumption of red tide intoxicated shellfish,” he said, adding the lowest MU unit considered safe for humans is below 400 MU.

Traders are also reminded to cooperate with the authorities by not selling the shellfish as they could risk the lives of people.

“Only the Fisheries Department can detect the presence of this toxin in all types of shellfish in our specialised lab and not by mere sight or smell,” Rayner explained.

He added that the toxin in shellfish also could not be made safe by washing it repeatedly or by cooking.

Symptoms of the deadly algae bloom, commonly known as the red tide phenomenon, includes tingling of the lips and tongue depending on the severity of the poisoning.

Symptoms may progress to a prickling of pins and needles’ sensation followed by the loss of control in a person’s arms and legs and later difficulty in breathing.

Those with such symptoms are advised to seek immediate medical attention as delay may result in death.

The deadly red algae blood more commonly known as red tide phenomenon was detected in November last year and is expected to tail off by end of this month.

In March, higher levels of red-tide toxins were detected in clam samples obtained from Kuala Penyu and areas off Kota Kinabalu City, Sipitang and Tuaran.

Source

Red tide warning in Sabah west coast

Borneo Post, 13 Dec 2013

Samples of bivalves taken from Kuala Penyu District, particularly the Setompok Lake area, and from waters off Kota Kinabalu District, including Gaya Island, Sepanggar Bay (Kuala Menggatal included) and Likas Bay as well as Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts have shown to contain toxic level of PSP toxins

Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid

KOTA KINABALU: The Department of Fisheries yesterday advised the people across the state to refrain from consuming any type of shellfish or bivalves immediately following the detection of red tide in the west coast of Sabah.

In issuing the red tide warning, the department’s director Rayner Stuel Galid also advised the public to refrain from collecting shellfish and bivalves from the sea areas in the west coast with the intention to eat or sell them.

“If consumers do wish to eat bivalve shellfish, they are advised to make certain that these bivalves are not obtained from the waters off the west coast of Sabah,” he said.

The shellfish include oysters (tiram), mussels (kupang), cockles (kerang) and any type of clam-like food.

Rayner said the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins has been detected in samples of bivalves (kerang-kerangan) obtained from the sea in parts of the west coast of Sabah.

He said samples of bivalves taken from Kuala Penyu District, particularly the Setompok Lake area, and from waters off Kota Kinabalu District, including Gaya Island, Sepanggar Bay (Kuala Menggatal included) and Likas Bay as well as Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts have shown to contain toxic level of PSP toxins.

The department also detected the presence of high densities of the PSP-causative organism, that is the dinoflagellate, Pyyrodinium bahamense var compressum, in samples of seawater taken from those affected areas.

Rayner said red tide occurances in Sabah in past years have revealed bivalves to be as toxic as 8000MU (Mouse Unit), where 400MU is considered the lowest limit as the dangerous level for humans.

Some of the shellfish samples taken to date have shown the levels to be as high as 4,010MU in Papar and 1270MU in Tuaran and is considered as very high.

“There is a high possibility that other adjoining districts will be affected (by the red tide) in the future. It is also expected that shellfish will become more toxic as these dinoflagellates become more numerous in the sea,” he said in a statement.

Rayner said safe to eat are all types of prawns and crabs including shovel-nosed lobsters, mantis shrimps, all types of coral fish and fish which are predatory such as sharks and sting rays, barracuda, tenggiri, jacks, etc, and deep sea fishes.

As a prudent measure, consumers are advised to throw away the guts and gills of any fish to be eaten and be washed properly.

Also, any type of dried, canned, bottled or salted fish products are safe to eat, he added.

The first PSP case in Sabah was recorded in 1976 where 202 people were reported to be suffering from PSP and seven died.

Since then, PSP occurances have been detected every few years off the west coast of Sabah.

Rayner said early symptoms of PSP include tingling of the lips and tongue which may begin within minutes of eating poisonus shellfish or may take an hour or two to develop.

Depending on the amount of toxin a person has ingested, symptoms may progress to a sensation of “pricking of pins and needles” of the skin and then loss of control of arms and legs, followed by difficulty in breathing. Some people have experienced a sense of floating or nausea.

If a person consumes enough poison, muscles of the chest and abdomen become paralysed. Death can result in as little as two hours, as muscles used for breathing become paralysed.

Rayner advised the public to get medical treatment immediately at the nearest hospital or clinic if they experience the symptoms.

“There is no medication available for PSP or Saxitoxin poisoning; in general, supportive measures are the basis of treatment for PSP and in severe cases, with the use of a mechanical respirator or oxygen,” he said.

The department is working closely with the Health Department and will conduct further sampling and testing of other fishes and life sea collected from other districts to determine if they are toxic and dangerous to human health, he said adding further information can be obtain from http://fishdept.sabah.gov.my/download/redtideinfo.doc

Alert over red tide: Fish from Sabah banned

Borneo Post, 15 Dec 2012

BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN: In view of the growing concern of the red tide phenomenon in Sabah, the Department of Fisheries under the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources has temporarily slapped a ban on the importation of small fish from Sabah, Borneo Bulletin reported.

According to a press release issued by the Department of Fisheries, people are banned from importing the following fishes from Sabah; Tamban, Aur-Aur, Rumahan Bini, Rumahan Laki, Temanong, Selidai, Sanglar, Geronggong, Basong-Basong, Pusu, Kuasi and Termanong Bersurat, Molluscs, including oysters, cockles and mussels from Sabah are also banned.

The latest monitoring and laboratory analysis carried out by the Department of Fisheries yesterday has shown that the waters of Brunei Darussalam are now affected by red tide. The affected areas are Pelumpong and Pancang Hijau.

The Department of Fisheries of Sabah, meanwhile, through its media informed the public that some of the water areas of Sabah are affected by red tide, including Kuala Penyu, Pulau Gaya, Sepanggar Bay, Menggatal Bay, Likas Bay, Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts.

As a precautionary measure, members of the public are reminded to remove the guts, gills and other internal organs of fish before cooking. The public should also refrain from eating small fish of which their gills, guts and internal organs cannot be removed and also Molluscan shellfish as well as fish from any of the affected areas or from unknown origins.

The Department of Fisheries will continue to monitor the red tide situation. In the meantime, the public, especially fishermen, can assist the department by reporting any water discolouration or mass fish mortality in the country’s water and beaches by calling 2770066, 8614867, 8878833, 8847846, 8787337 or 8675409.

Red tide still at worrying level – Fisheries Dept

Borneo Post, 18 Dec 2012

KOTA KINABALU: The incidence of red tide in Papar, Tuaran, Tasik Sitompok (Kuala Penyu) and here is still at a worrying level.

Fisheries Department senior officer (head of the quality division), Boniface Jintony told The Borneo Post yesterday that the concentration of toxic algal blooms remained high at the affected areas.

“The incident began late November this year and has remained high,” he said.

He added that when the situation returns to normal, the department would issue another reminder to tell consumers that the red tide incident is over.

“As of now, we are still monitoring the situation,” he said.

Boniface also explained that most fish were safe for consumption as long as their gills and intestines were removed.

“We are asking people to avoid eating the ‘slender rainbow sardine’ fish which is also known as Dussumleria sp or ‘ikan tamban’. It is unsafe to eat the fish species because they eat plankton. People should also avoid shells as they accumulate high toxin,” he said.

Commenting on some 300 trawlers moored at the KK market waterfront, he said: “They are moored there because they do not understand the situation.”

He added that the trawler operators could continue to catch and sell fish and were requested to avoid catching and selling the slender rainbow sardine fish as well as shells during the present period.

“They get confused each time we make an announcement of red-tide incidents,” he said.