Spatial and seasonal variability of Chlorophyll-a and associated oceanographic events in Sabah water

Abbas, Alaa A.,Mansor, Shattri B. ; Pradhan, Biswajeet ; Tan, C.K.,2012. Spatial and seasonal variability of Chlorophyll-a and associated oceanographic events in Sabah water.The Second International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications (EORSA 2012), pp 215-219. DOI 10.1109/EORSA.2012.6261168.

Abstract

This study investigated the spatial and temporal distributions of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Sabah coastal water using satellite data, and identified the associated oceanographic events which caused large scale water enrichment in the surface layer. Results showed that surface Chl-a experienced seasonality in Sabah waters. At the northwest coast, very obvious increase in the Chl-a was observed from January to March, attributed to wind-driven coastal upwelling during the northeast monsoon (NEM). The southeast coast depicted high Chl-a at Labuan offshore water, related to the reversing direction of Baram River plume towards Sabah during NEM. Labuan bay water had higher Chl-a during the southwest monsoon (SWM) due to the effect of discharged materials from the Padas River during the rainy season at Labuan. On the other side, a slight increase in surface Chl-a was illustrated along the entire northeast coast during NEM, with higher concentrations at the southern part compared to the northern region. The high Chl-a at the southern part (southern Sandakan) was owing to alongshore water transport from the northern region driven by NEM winds and effect of discharged materials from the Kinabatangan River during the rainy season at Sandakan. Water characteristic at the southeast coast was highly influenced by surface water transport from the Sulu and Sulawesi seas and prevailed surface currents. Both inshore and offshore waters off Semporna had peak Chl-a in December, related to Sulu Sea water transport towards Semporna and occurrence of cyclonic eddy at the offshore water during early NEM. Tawau water showed very high Chl-a throughout the year due to the effect of coastal discharge. The discharged material near Tawau was transported to a wider area offshore during SWM. That in turn caused another peak Chl-a at Semporna inshore water in August during SWM.

Keywords:

  • Asian monsoon
  • Sabah water
  • chlorophyll-a
  • seasonal variation
  • upwelling

Toksin air merah masih ada pada kerang

  Jabatan Perikanan Sabah mengumumkan bahawa sampel kerang yang dikumpul dari pelbagai tempat di  negeri ini masih mengandungi paras bahaya toksin fenomena air merah.

Pengarahnya, Rayner Stuel Galid berkata, keputusan menunjukkan bahawa tahap ketoksikan kekal memudaratkan iaitu dalam 700 MU (Unit Mouse), 300 MU lebih tinggi daripada paras yang dianggap selamat untuk manusia

“Memakan kerang yang mengandungi toksin air merah menyebabkan keracunan makanan dan boleh membawa maut,” kata Rayner.

“Hanya Jabatan Perikanan dapat mengesan kehadiran toksin dalam kerang dan ujian dijalankan di makmal khas kami. Toksin tidak dapat dikesan oleh penglihatan, bau atau rasa dan ianya tidak boleh dikeluarkan melalui cucian teliti atau memasak,” katanya.

Fenomena air merah atau Red Tide adalah istilah yang biasa digunakan untuk alga bloom berbahaya (HAB). HAB berlaku apabila koloni tumbuh-tumbuhan laut atau pertumbuhan alga terkeluar dari kawalan. Satu sel tunggal boleh menyebabkan pembiakan beberapa ratus sel-sel dan keadaan air yang sesuai akan menyebabkan pengeluaran toksin yang boleh melemahkan manusia. Bahan toksin ini membunuh ikan dan menjadikan kerang-kerangan tidak selamat untuk dimakan. Bloom ini juga sering menukarkan air menjadi merah, dengan itu istilah “air merah” pun berlaku.

Menurut Rayner, keadaan cuaca panas dan basah baru-baru ini menyebabkan tempoh fenomena air merah di Sabah berpanjangan.

Fenomena ini pertama kali dikesan pada November tahun lalu dan sampel kerang dikumpulkan dari Kuala Penyu, Tuaran, Sipitang dan pantai Bandaraya Kota Kinabalu menunjukkan tahap yang lebih tinggi racun pada Mac tahun ini.

Orang ramai dinasihatkan untuk menahan diri daripada menjual dan mengambil semua jenis kerang atau dwicangkerang seperti tiram, kupang, kerang, kepah atau krustasia seperti udang dan ketam.

Rasa semut-semut atau sensasi mencucuk dalam mulut dan lidah, sakit kepala, loya adalah tanda-tanda keracunan air merah atau keracunan paralitik kerang-kerangan (PSP). Simptom boleh bertambah dari kebas kepada kehilangan kawalan anggota badan yang membawa kepada kegagalan pernafasan.

Kesan tanda-tanda toksik adalah cepat dan gejala awal biasanya berlaku dalam tempoh dua jam selepas memakannya. Rawatan perubatan mesti segera dilakukan. Setakat ini, fenomena air merah telah mengorbankan tiga nyawa di Sabah. – Insight Sabah

Diterbitkan pada Jun 08, 2013

Source

Amaran Air Merah di Pantai Barat Sabah

  Satu amaran kesihatan yang melarang orang awam makan kerang, dikeluarkan berikutan penemuan kewujudan air merah di sepanjang pantai barat Sabah.

Pengarah Jabatan Perikanan, Rayner Stuel Galid mengingatkan orang ramai untuk tidak makan kerang yang dikutip dari kawasan-kawasan terjejas selepas ujian rutin menunjukkan kepekatan tinggi toksin keracunan paralitik kerang (PSP). Beliau turut memberitahu para nelayan untuk tidak mengumpul atau menjual kerang beracun ini.

Menurut jabatan itu, sampel kerang yang diambil dari perairan Kota Kinabalu, Pulau Gaya, Teluk Sepanggar, Teluk Likas, Papar, Putatan, daerah Tuaran dan daerah sejauh Kuala Penyu juga diuji positif bagi toksin PSP.

Spesies kerang terdedah kepada keracunan PSP termasuk semua spesies kerang iaitu kerang (Kerang), tiram (Tiram) dan kupang (Kupang). Selain itu, Rayner berkata, sampel air laut dari kawasan yang terjejas juga mendedahkan kepekatan tinggi PSP yang menyebabkan organisma. Beliau melaporkan bahawa sebelum ini, kejadian air merah di Sabah menunjukkan kepekatan toksik dalam kerang-kerangan adalah setinggi 8,000MU (mouse unit) di atas paras 400MU yang dianggap tahap risiko minimum untuk kegunaan manusia.

Data terbaru yang dikumpul daripada sampel kerang menunjukkan kepekatan berbahaya tahap toksik dengan 4,010 MU di Papar dan 1,270MU di Tuaran.

“Ada kemungkinan tinggi yang air merah itu akan merebak ke daerah-daerah berdekatan di masa depan. Juga dijangka bahawa kerang akan menjadi lebih toksik berikutan dinoflagellates menjadi lebih banyak di laut,” kata Rayner.

Walaupun kebanyakan jenis ikan, udang dan spesies ketam selamat dimakan, jabatan menyarankan pengguna untuk membuang insang dan semua bahan daripada perut semua jenis ikan dan memastikan ia dibasuh dengan teliti. Bagaimanapun, katanya, mana-mana ikan kering, ikan masin dan lain-lain produk ikan yang diproses adalah selamat untuk dimakan.

Air Merah digambarkan sebagai keadaan di mana penapis pemakanan kerang mengumpul toksin akibat pemprosesan semulajadi alga marin.

Menurut Rayner, gejala keracunan PSP bermula dengan cucukan sensasi dalam mulut, sakit kepala, loya yang berlaku dengan pantas dalam masa beberapa minit atau sekurang-kurangnya sejam selepas makan kerang yang terjejas. Bergantung pada jumlah yang dimakan kerang tercemar, toksin menyerang sistem saraf pusat manusia, yang boleh membawa maut.

Tiada penawar untuk keracunan PSP dan orang ramai digesa mendapatkan rawatan perubatan dengan segera di klinik atau hospital berdekatan jika mereka mengalami sebarang gejala yang dinyatakan.

“Jabatan kami akan bekerja rapat dengan Jabatan Kesihatan untuk menjalankan persampelan dan ujian lanjut kehidupan laut yang dikutip di kawasan-kawasan lain dan akan terus memantau keadaan” kata Rayner. – Insight Sabah

Diterbitkan pada Disember 18, 2012

Source

Avoid shellfish in Sabah’s west coast

The Star, 22 Jul 2013

Red tide as seen from the air.Red tide as seen from the air.

KOTA KINABALU: Consuming shellfish in Sabah should still be avoided as red tide is still prevailing in waters off the state’s west coast.

Sabah Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid said on Monday the toxic level is between 600 and 800 Mouse Unit (MU), which is a dangerous level for humans.

“This phenomenon is expected to tail off by August and people should refrain from taking shellfish especially those from Kuala Penyu and areas off Kota Kinabalu City, Sipitang and Tuaran as clam samples collected from these areas few months ago was among the highest in Sabah,” he said.

“Food poisoning and even death can result from the consumption of red tide intoxicated shellfish,” he said, adding the lowest MU unit considered safe for humans is below 400 MU.

Traders are also reminded to cooperate with the authorities by not selling the shellfish as they could risk the lives of people.

“Only the Fisheries Department can detect the presence of this toxin in all types of shellfish in our specialized lab and not by mere sight or smell,” Rayner explained.

He added that the toxin in shellfish also couldn’t be washed away even by cooking or washing repeatedly.

More than a hundred people had been warded for red tide poisoning earlier this year, while three deaths had been recorded from this deadly algae bloom.

Symptoms of the deadly algae bloom, commonly known as the red tide phenomenon, includes tingling of the lips and tongue depending on the severity of the poisoning.

Symptoms may progress to a ‘prickling of pins and needles’ sensation followed by the loss of control in a person’s arms and legs and later difficulty in breathing.

Those with such symptoms are advised to seek immediate medical attention as delay may result in death.

The red tide phenomenon was detected in November last year and was supposed to have tailed off by end of June.

Source

Red tide toxin in Sabah continues to make shellfish unsafe to eat

The Star, 7 Jun 2013

KOTA KINABALU: It is still not advisable to consume shellfish, as the level of red tide toxin recorded in various parts of Sabah sea continues to be high.

Sabah Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid said the toxic level is still within 700 Mouse Unit (MU), which is a relatively dangerous level for humans.

“Food poisoning and even death can result from the consumption of red tide intoxicated shellfish,” he said, adding the lowest MU unit considered safe for humans is below 400 MU.

Traders are also reminded to cooperate with the authorities by not selling the shellfish as they could risk the lives of people.

“Only the Fisheries Department can detect the presence of this toxin in all types of shellfish in our specialised lab and not by mere sight or smell,” Rayner explained.

He added that the toxin in shellfish also could not be made safe by washing it repeatedly or by cooking.

Symptoms of the deadly algae bloom, commonly known as the red tide phenomenon, includes tingling of the lips and tongue depending on the severity of the poisoning.

Symptoms may progress to a prickling of pins and needles’ sensation followed by the loss of control in a person’s arms and legs and later difficulty in breathing.

Those with such symptoms are advised to seek immediate medical attention as delay may result in death.

The deadly red algae blood more commonly known as red tide phenomenon was detected in November last year and is expected to tail off by end of this month.

In March, higher levels of red-tide toxins were detected in clam samples obtained from Kuala Penyu and areas off Kota Kinabalu City, Sipitang and Tuaran.

Source

Red tide warning in Sabah west coast

Borneo Post, 13 Dec 2013

Samples of bivalves taken from Kuala Penyu District, particularly the Setompok Lake area, and from waters off Kota Kinabalu District, including Gaya Island, Sepanggar Bay (Kuala Menggatal included) and Likas Bay as well as Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts have shown to contain toxic level of PSP toxins

Fisheries Department Director Rayner Stuel Galid

KOTA KINABALU: The Department of Fisheries yesterday advised the people across the state to refrain from consuming any type of shellfish or bivalves immediately following the detection of red tide in the west coast of Sabah.

In issuing the red tide warning, the department’s director Rayner Stuel Galid also advised the public to refrain from collecting shellfish and bivalves from the sea areas in the west coast with the intention to eat or sell them.

“If consumers do wish to eat bivalve shellfish, they are advised to make certain that these bivalves are not obtained from the waters off the west coast of Sabah,” he said.

The shellfish include oysters (tiram), mussels (kupang), cockles (kerang) and any type of clam-like food.

Rayner said the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins has been detected in samples of bivalves (kerang-kerangan) obtained from the sea in parts of the west coast of Sabah.

He said samples of bivalves taken from Kuala Penyu District, particularly the Setompok Lake area, and from waters off Kota Kinabalu District, including Gaya Island, Sepanggar Bay (Kuala Menggatal included) and Likas Bay as well as Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts have shown to contain toxic level of PSP toxins.

The department also detected the presence of high densities of the PSP-causative organism, that is the dinoflagellate, Pyyrodinium bahamense var compressum, in samples of seawater taken from those affected areas.

Rayner said red tide occurances in Sabah in past years have revealed bivalves to be as toxic as 8000MU (Mouse Unit), where 400MU is considered the lowest limit as the dangerous level for humans.

Some of the shellfish samples taken to date have shown the levels to be as high as 4,010MU in Papar and 1270MU in Tuaran and is considered as very high.

“There is a high possibility that other adjoining districts will be affected (by the red tide) in the future. It is also expected that shellfish will become more toxic as these dinoflagellates become more numerous in the sea,” he said in a statement.

Rayner said safe to eat are all types of prawns and crabs including shovel-nosed lobsters, mantis shrimps, all types of coral fish and fish which are predatory such as sharks and sting rays, barracuda, tenggiri, jacks, etc, and deep sea fishes.

As a prudent measure, consumers are advised to throw away the guts and gills of any fish to be eaten and be washed properly.

Also, any type of dried, canned, bottled or salted fish products are safe to eat, he added.

The first PSP case in Sabah was recorded in 1976 where 202 people were reported to be suffering from PSP and seven died.

Since then, PSP occurances have been detected every few years off the west coast of Sabah.

Rayner said early symptoms of PSP include tingling of the lips and tongue which may begin within minutes of eating poisonus shellfish or may take an hour or two to develop.

Depending on the amount of toxin a person has ingested, symptoms may progress to a sensation of “pricking of pins and needles” of the skin and then loss of control of arms and legs, followed by difficulty in breathing. Some people have experienced a sense of floating or nausea.

If a person consumes enough poison, muscles of the chest and abdomen become paralysed. Death can result in as little as two hours, as muscles used for breathing become paralysed.

Rayner advised the public to get medical treatment immediately at the nearest hospital or clinic if they experience the symptoms.

“There is no medication available for PSP or Saxitoxin poisoning; in general, supportive measures are the basis of treatment for PSP and in severe cases, with the use of a mechanical respirator or oxygen,” he said.

The department is working closely with the Health Department and will conduct further sampling and testing of other fishes and life sea collected from other districts to determine if they are toxic and dangerous to human health, he said adding further information can be obtain from http://fishdept.sabah.gov.my/download/redtideinfo.doc

Alert over red tide: Fish from Sabah banned

Borneo Post, 15 Dec 2012

BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN: In view of the growing concern of the red tide phenomenon in Sabah, the Department of Fisheries under the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources has temporarily slapped a ban on the importation of small fish from Sabah, Borneo Bulletin reported.

According to a press release issued by the Department of Fisheries, people are banned from importing the following fishes from Sabah; Tamban, Aur-Aur, Rumahan Bini, Rumahan Laki, Temanong, Selidai, Sanglar, Geronggong, Basong-Basong, Pusu, Kuasi and Termanong Bersurat, Molluscs, including oysters, cockles and mussels from Sabah are also banned.

The latest monitoring and laboratory analysis carried out by the Department of Fisheries yesterday has shown that the waters of Brunei Darussalam are now affected by red tide. The affected areas are Pelumpong and Pancang Hijau.

The Department of Fisheries of Sabah, meanwhile, through its media informed the public that some of the water areas of Sabah are affected by red tide, including Kuala Penyu, Pulau Gaya, Sepanggar Bay, Menggatal Bay, Likas Bay, Papar, Putatan and Tuaran districts.

As a precautionary measure, members of the public are reminded to remove the guts, gills and other internal organs of fish before cooking. The public should also refrain from eating small fish of which their gills, guts and internal organs cannot be removed and also Molluscan shellfish as well as fish from any of the affected areas or from unknown origins.

The Department of Fisheries will continue to monitor the red tide situation. In the meantime, the public, especially fishermen, can assist the department by reporting any water discolouration or mass fish mortality in the country’s water and beaches by calling 2770066, 8614867, 8878833, 8847846, 8787337 or 8675409.

Red tide still at worrying level – Fisheries Dept

Borneo Post, 18 Dec 2012

KOTA KINABALU: The incidence of red tide in Papar, Tuaran, Tasik Sitompok (Kuala Penyu) and here is still at a worrying level.

Fisheries Department senior officer (head of the quality division), Boniface Jintony told The Borneo Post yesterday that the concentration of toxic algal blooms remained high at the affected areas.

“The incident began late November this year and has remained high,” he said.

He added that when the situation returns to normal, the department would issue another reminder to tell consumers that the red tide incident is over.

“As of now, we are still monitoring the situation,” he said.

Boniface also explained that most fish were safe for consumption as long as their gills and intestines were removed.

“We are asking people to avoid eating the ‘slender rainbow sardine’ fish which is also known as Dussumleria sp or ‘ikan tamban’. It is unsafe to eat the fish species because they eat plankton. People should also avoid shells as they accumulate high toxin,” he said.

Commenting on some 300 trawlers moored at the KK market waterfront, he said: “They are moored there because they do not understand the situation.”

He added that the trawler operators could continue to catch and sell fish and were requested to avoid catching and selling the slender rainbow sardine fish as well as shells during the present period.

“They get confused each time we make an announcement of red-tide incidents,” he said.

Two in Kudat die after eating poisonous sea cucumber

Borneo Post, 4 Feb 2013

KOTA KINABALU: Two men have died after eating a poisonous species of sea cucumber in Sabah’s northern Kudat district.

State Fisheries Department director Rayner Stuel Galid said the deaths were due to the consumption of a species of sea cucumber known locally as pelanduk laut and unrelated to the red tide poisoning.

“We tested the specimen and found that the sea cucumber has its own toxin,” he said.

The men, aged 51 and 54, died at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital here on Thursday after they became ill from eating the sea cucumber during a meal with four other people at Kg Suangpai in Kudat.

It is learnt that the two men, who had suffered from severe vomiting, numbness and breathing difficulties, were initially treated at the Kudat Hospital on Wednesday before being transferred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital here.

Two others who took the same meal were also treated in Kudat but they had less severe symptoms.

The toxic sea cucumber, which has black and purple dots, is found in Kudat’s Marudu bay.

Two people have so far died from red tide poisoning in Sabah since it first occurred off its shores in November in a phenomenon that is expected to last until June.

The red tide phenomenon is triggered by a deadly algae bloom, which produces toxic or harmful effects to marine life and turns the water red.

 

Red Tide detected off Labuan

Daily Express, 3 Mar 2013

Labuan: Fisheries Director Zainudin b Hj. Abd. Wahab said Red Tide poisoning was detected in Labuan waters as of 11.40am Friday near Pulau Papan which is 600m from the island. He said the survey made by the Fisheries Department found the area enclosed by the Red Tide was about three to four hectares. Samples sent to the fisheries laboratory in Likas found that the Red Tide is of the Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum kind with a very high concentration reaching 473,600 cells/liter and this is known as “Algae Bloom”. The level considered dangerous to humans is 5,000 cells/liter. Very high concentrations will cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) of the muscles that can cause death. The Department expects the Red Tide to last for about two weeks. Chances are the red tide will be swept away towards Pulau Daat, Menumbok, Sipitang and Lawas, he said.

The public, especially Labuan residents, are advised not to eat sea products such as snails, shells and fish, especially small pelagic fish like selayang/basung and fish kembong/rumahan during the red tide season. Fish caught outside of the three nautical miles (kembong and basung), should have their gills removed and the fish washed well before cooking. The department also noted that the “bubuk” shrimp season had started in waters adjacent to Tanjung Kubung up to UMS. It is recommended that fishermen do not take and consume them because of fears of being contaminated by the Red Tide, he said.

Source: Daily Express