Satellite Sensors

Nimbus 7 that hosted the CZCS - first ocean color sensor
Nimbus 7 that hosted the CZCS – first ocean color sensor

Past and Present Ocean Color Sensor/ Project

Remote sensing of ocean colour from space began in 1978 with the successful launch of NASA’s Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Despite the fact that CZCS was an experimental mission intended to last only one year, the sensor continued to generate a valuable time-series of data over selected test sites until early 1986. Ten years passed before other sources of ocean-colour data became available with the launch of other sensors, and in particular the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1997 on board the NASA SeaStar satellite. Subsequent sensors have included NASA’s Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua and Tearra satellites and ESA’s MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard its environmental satellite Envisat. Several new ocean-colour sensors have recently been launched, including the Indian Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM-2) on-board ISRO‘s Oceansat-2 satellite and the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is the first ocean colour sensor to be launched on a geostationary satellite. More ocean colour sensors are planned over the next decade by various space agencies.

Ocean Colour Radiometry and its derived products are also seen as a fundamental Essential Climate Variable as defined by the Global Climate Observing System. Ocean colour datasets provide the only global synoptic perspective of primary production in the oceans, giving insight into the role of the world’s oceans in the global carbon cycle.

Following are the ocean color sensor/ projects that have the coverage of Malaysian and Southeast Asian waters. Information about ocean color sensor can also be accessed through IOCCG web page.

http://www.ioccg.org/sensors_ioccg.html

CZCS (NASA)

This is the first ocean color sensor for global observation. It is more to experimental sensor than operational. However, the data gathered from this sensor had provided detail understanding and knowledge on the development of today ocean color remote sensing.

OCTS (JAPAN) (http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ADEOS/Directory/index.html)

SeaWiFS (NASA) (http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEAWIFS.html)

MODIS (NASA) (http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/)

There are two MODIS sensors, Terra and Aqua. It has been applied widely for atmospheric, land and ocean application. For instance, MODIS Global Fire Monitoring has been used for the forest fire monitoring in South East Asian Region.

MERIS (ESA, Europe) (http://envisat.esa.int/instruments/meris/)

OCI (Taiwan) (http://www.oci.ntou.edu.tw/)

GLI (Japan) (http://suzaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GLI/index.html)

NPOESS (USA) (http://www.ipo.noaa.gov/)

 

Current Operational Ocean Color Sensors

SENSOR AGENCY SATELLITE LAUNCH DATE SWATH
(km)
SPATIAL RESOLUTION
(m)
BANDS SPECTRAL
COVERAGE (nm)
ORBIT
COCTS
CZI
CNSA
(China)
HY-1B
(China)
11 April 2007 2400
500
1100
250
10
4
402 – 12,500
433 – 695
Polar
GOCI KARI/KORDI
(South Korea)
COMS 26 June 2010 2500 500 8 400 – 865 Geostationary
HICO ONR and DOD
Space Test Programme
JEM-EF
Int. Space Stn.
18 Sept. 2009 50 km
Selected coastal scenes
100 124 380 – 1000 51.6o,
15.8 orbits p/d
MERSI CNSA
(China)
FY-3A
(China)
27 May 2008 2400 250/1000 20 402-2155 Polar
MERSI CNSA
(China)
FY-3B
(China)
5 November 2010 2400 250/1000 20 402-2155 Polar
MODIS-Aqua NASA
(USA)
Aqua
(EOS-PM1)
4 May 2002 2330 250/500/1000 36 405-14,385 Polar
MODIS-Terra NASA
(USA)
Terra
(EOS-AM1)
18 Dec. 1999 2330 250/500/1000 36 405-14,385 Polar
OCM-2 ISRO
(India)
Oceansat-2
(India)
23 Sept. 2009 1420 360/4000 8 400 – 900 Polar
POLDER-3 CNES
(France)
Parasol 18 Dec. 2004 2100 6000 9 443-1020 Polar
VIIRS NOAA /NASA
(USA)
NPP 28 Oct. 2011 3000 370 / 740 22 402 – 11,800 Polar

Source: http://www.ioccg.org/sensors/current.html

Reference:

IOCCG (http://www.ioccg.org/sensors/current.html)

Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_color)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *